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Thread: Prof Killeen - Nicotine does not cause cigarette addiction

  1. #1
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    Prof Killeen - Nicotine does not cause cigarette addiction



    An ASU professor is challenging widely held conceptions about smoking, including challenging the view that nicotine is addictive.

    Peter Killeen, emeritus professor of psychology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, presented his research findings for the National Institute on Drug Abuse on the Tempe campus Wednesday afternoon.

    The talk was called “Reefer Madness: There ain’t no such Thing as Addiction to Nicotine.”

    NIDA initially invited Killeen to look into ways to improve scientific research on drug abuse, specifically nicotine addiction.

    “I came up with a shocking discovery,” Killeen said. “There’s no such thing as nicotine addiction.”

    “It’s time to get our heads straight,” Killeen said. “What causes the tremendously addicting power of cigarettes is the drug cocktail of nicotine,” he said, not nicotine itself.

    Before he got into his findings, Killeen said he wanted to make clear that tobacco kills.

    “[Tobacco] is the number one preventable cause of death in developing nations,” he said. “Half of the people who are lifelong smokers will die of smoking-related illness.”

    And yet, he said, the mass addiction to cigarettes and the public knowledge of tobacco’s deadliness creates a paradox.

    There is something missing in the equation, Killeen said: A sufficient answer about what causes the powerful addiction.

    For years, researchers have maintained that nicotine is the cause of tobacco addiction.

    But Killeen said new evidence suggests otherwise.

    “A large portion of the research on tobacco studies is done on nicotine. But the research has not been very reinforcing,” Killeen said. “Nicotine in itself is not very rewarding. You can go to any drugstore and buy a packet of Nicorette chewing gum.”

    But people don’t overdose on Nicorette chewing gum, he said.

    “Studies have shown that none of the nicotine replacement therapies — chewing gum, inhalers, patches — none of those are addictive,” he said. “Nicotine is not addictive. So what’s going on?”

    The cause of addiction is the release of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs, along with nicotine, Killeen said.

    While nicotine affects the release of dopamine, or the “reward hormone” that affects emotions and movement, MAOIs help regulate dopamine levels, Killeen said.

    “When you put together something that directly releases dopamine and another thing that helps the brain clean up excess dopamine, you’ve got a one-two punch,” he said. “It is my hypothesis that it’s a combination of nicotine with some of these other chemicals that causes the powerful addiction.”

    Killeen said publicizing his research is important in moving forward with the study.

    “Not everybody knows that nicotine is not addictive,” he said. “This negatively affects both the research and public opinion.”

    Many people are hesitant to accept the research’s implications, but Killeen said his hypothesis is hard to deny.

    “I presented this position to 20 of the world’s experts,” he said. “And though some were shocked and insulted, no one could argue that my case was untrue.”

    ASU Director of Campus Health Services Allan Markus said it would take a thorough clinical trial to further prove Killeen’s hypothesis.

    “The overall scientific evidence from research, going back many, many years, proves that nicotine is addictive,” Markus said.

    Anthropology sophomore Marisa Rios said the social aspect of smoking appeals to her.

    “What makes me smoke is not the jonesing or need for a fix every 15 minutes,” she said. “What makes me smoke is stress or just wanting something to do.”

    Killeen said even though the addiction to cigarettes is highly chemical, a large part of quitting comes from creating distance from these social smoking situations.

    Of 100 smokers who decided to quit, only 10 are still abstinent after a year, meaning there is a 90 percent relapse rate, Killeen said.

    “There’s no such thing as a cure, in the sense that there’s always a very small but real possibility of relapse [for successful quitters],” Killeen said. “You can’t ever let down your guard.”

    Professor: Nicotine does not cause cigarette addiction | The State Press - An independent daily serving Arizona State University
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  2. #2
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    Some of the science he relies on to reach his conclusions.

    Effects of nicotine in experimental animals and humans: an update on addictive properties

    "CONCLUSIONS
    In conclusion, nicotine functions as an effective reinforcer of drug-seeking and drug-taking in both humans and experimental animals. In intravenous drug self-administration studies, nicotine can serve as a prototypical drug of abuse under certain conditions, maintaining very high levels of operant responding that are clearly distinguishable from responding maintained by saline placebo in both experimental animals and human smokers. Nicotine is also able to induce significant CPP in rodents. Thus, reinforcing effects of nicotine have now been clearly demonstrated across procedures and across different experimental species. These procedures have revealed that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the α4 and the β2 subunits (Picciotto et al. 1998; Tapper et al. 2004), but also cannabinoid, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors are involved in nicotine dependence processes (Le Foll and Goldberg 2005; Liechti et al. 2007; Paterson et al. 2004) (see also chapters from Dr Balfour and Collins et al.). Analysis of the discriminative effects of nicotine in experimental animals and reports of subjective effects of nicotine in humans reveal a complex global effect with both positive and negative components. Both the positive and negative effects of nicotine are affected by environmental conditions and the context of the experiments, factors that may explain the difficulties in obtaining reliable results with nicotine in the past.

    As with other drugs of abuse, cessation of nicotine exposure induces a withdrawal syndrome that is associated with both physical and emotional signs and symptoms. Nicotine usage may be continued by some subjects to prevent or relieve these withdrawal symptoms and, perhaps, also to prevent depression that may occur following smoking cessation. As with other drugs of abuse, nicotine priming and exposure to nicotine-associated stimuli or stressors produce reinstatement or relapse, both in experimental animals and humans. Medications that are effective in humans for increasing smoking cessation rates generally appear effective in reducing intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine withdrawal signs and the effects on behavior of presentating nicotine-associated environmental stimuli, demonstrating again a strong analogy between responding of experimental animals and humans. All of these findings indicate that nicotine can act like a typical drug of abuse both in animals and humans. In addition, innovative pharmacological treatment approaches, such as the use of dopamine D3 antagonists (Le Foll et al. 2005; Le Foll et al. 2000; Pak et al. 2006) or cannabinoid CB1 antagonists (Cohen et al. 2005; Forget et al. 2005; Le Foll and Goldberg 2005), are under development and show promise of being able to selectively block relapse phenomenon."
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    Some scientific analysis to backup my previous statements that I didn't think nic was as addictive on it's own as it is in its burned form. I just called it "all the other shit in cigarettes"




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    Quote Originally Posted by Altered1 View Post
    I just called it "all the other shit in cigarettes"
    ATOSIC's? (Ah-Toe-Siks)
    Totally legit scientific term.
    (well - is now )
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    Or ATOSIT for tobacco.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Altered1 View Post
    Or ATOSIT for tobacco.
    And ... commonly known as WTA (Whole Tobacco Alkaloids)
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    Quote Originally Posted by gtadmin View Post
    And ... commonly known as WTA (Whole Tobacco Alkaloids)

    but what about all the other shit ? the "4000" chemicals?
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  8. #8
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    Quote Originally Posted by gtadmin View Post
    And ... commonly known as WTA (Whole Tobacco Alkaloids)
    I've heard of people using this. Is it a liquid you can add to your vape? or??

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    Yes, its a liquid ...
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    Started vaping 28th October 2011

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  10. #10
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    I'm a bit confused. The first post outlines his idea that nicotine on it's own is not addictive. But the second post with the conclusion to the research states that nicotine is totally an addictive drug.

    So which is it?
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