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Thread: Scientific research on health implications of e-cigarettes/vaping thread

  1. #1
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    Scientific research on health implications of e-cigarettes/vaping thread

    Hey all,

    New the AV, and new to vaping. However, I thought it would be nice to maintain a thread posting only summaries and links to peer-reviewed scientific articles. Reason is, I saw some really unbalanced (shall we say) media attention on the topic, and I think it's our responsibility as a community to respond by citing the scientific findings - most of which provides a real reality check.

    My suggestion is that each post contains a single article, and aims to post the abstract of the article, and a link to the original paper if at all possible. By the way, Google Scholar is your friend! Mt first few posts will be based on the results of a Google Scholar search for: e-cigarette harm review analysis chemical.

    I encourage everybody to engage with the Web 2.0 'popular media', e.g. YouTube discussions, and encourage a reasoned public discussion about vaping wherever possible.

    DrWag

    P.S. You should feel free to quote (cut and paste) from these articles (which have been published in peer reviewed scientific journals). Be sure to give the citation (the bit that starts with the author's names) as a reference for your quote. There's nothing like a dash of science to put your case forward!
    Last edited by drwag; 19-09-14 at 07:39 PM.
    tom32, Vaporific and BlueJay like this.
    __________________________________________________ __________
    Lady Bracknell: Do you vape?
    Jack: Well, Lady Bracknell, I am bound to say, yes, I do vape.
    Lady Bracknell: That is well. A man should always have an occupation.

    The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde

  2. #2
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    DrWag's emphases


    Goniewicz, M. L., Knysak, J., Gawron, M., Kosmider, L., Sobczak, A., Kurek, J., … Benowitz, N. (2014). Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tobacco Control, 23(2), 133–139. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050859


    Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes

    Abstract

    Significance Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generated from e–cigarettes. The aim of this study was to screen e-cigarette vapours for content of four groups of potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds: carbonyls, volatile organic compounds, nitrosamines and heavy metals.

    Materials and methods Vapours were generated from 12 brands of e-cigarettes and the reference product, the medicinal nicotine inhaler, in controlled conditions using a modified smoking machine. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from vapours into a solid or liquid phase and analysed with chromatographic and spectroscopy methods.

    Results We found that the e-cigarette vapours contained some toxic substances. The levels of the toxicants were 9–450 times lower than in cigarette smoke and were, in many cases, comparable with trace amounts found in the reference product.

    Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. E-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy among smokers unwilling to quit, warrants further study. (To view this abstract in Polish and German, please see the supplementary files online.)
    tom32 likes this.
    __________________________________________________ __________
    Lady Bracknell: Do you vape?
    Jack: Well, Lady Bracknell, I am bound to say, yes, I do vape.
    Lady Bracknell: That is well. A man should always have an occupation.

    The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde

  3. #3
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    DrWag's emphases in bold.

    Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality

    McAuley, T. R., Hopke, P. K., Zhao, J., & Babaian, S. (2012). Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality. Inhalation Toxicology, 24(12), 850–857. doi:10.3109/08958378.2012.724728

    An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie

    Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use.

    Objective: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-cigarettes and standard tobacco cigarettes.

    Methods and materials: Four different high nicotine e-liquids were vaporized in two sets of experiments by generic 2-piece e-cigarettes to collect emissions and assess indoor air concentrations of common tobacco smoke by products. Tobacco cigarette smoke tests were conducted for comparison.

    Results: Comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants included VOCs, carbonyls, PAHs, nicotine, TSNAs, and glycols. From these results, risk analyses were conducted based on dilution into a 40 m3 room and standard toxicological data. Non-cancer risk analysis revealed “No Significant Risk” of harm to human health for vapor samples from e-liquids (A-D). In contrast, for tobacco smoke most findings markedly exceeded risk limits indicating a condition of “Significant Risk” of harm to human health. With regard to cancer risk analysis, no vapor sample from e-liquids A-D exceeded the risk limit for either children or adults. The tobacco smoke sample approached the risk limits for adult exposure.

    Conclusions: For all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes. The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed.

    Read More: An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie
    tom32 likes this.
    __________________________________________________ __________
    Lady Bracknell: Do you vape?
    Jack: Well, Lady Bracknell, I am bound to say, yes, I do vape.
    Lady Bracknell: That is well. A man should always have an occupation.

    The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde

  4. #4
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    DrWag's emphases in bold

    Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective

    Wagener, T. L., Siegel, M., & Borrelli, B. (2012). Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective. Addiction, 107(9), 1545–1548. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03826.x

    ABSTRACT

    Concerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them. This paper argues that, while more research is needed on the cost–benefit equation of these products and the appropriate level and type of regulation for them, the harms have tended thus far to be overstated relative to the potential benefits. In particular: concern over repeated inhalation of propylene glycol is not borne out by toxicity studies with this compound; risk of accidental poisoning is no different from many household devices and chemicals available in supermarkets; concern that e-cigarettes may promote continued smoking by allowing smokers to cope with no-smoking environments is countered by the observation that most smokers use these products to try to quit and their use appears to enhance quitting motivation; concerns over low nicotine delivery are countered by evidence that the products provide significant craving reduction despite this in some cases; and e-cigarettes may help reduce toxin exposure to non-smokers.
    tom32 likes this.
    __________________________________________________ __________
    Lady Bracknell: Do you vape?
    Jack: Well, Lady Bracknell, I am bound to say, yes, I do vape.
    Lady Bracknell: That is well. A man should always have an occupation.

    The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde

  5. #5
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    What kind of toxic substances could you get????? I mean the juice is just VG/PG, some flavouring & nicotine. Maybe some stuff might come out of the coils but that is about it.


    Religion is regarded by the common people as true, by the wise as false, and by the rulers as useful.
    Lucius Annaeus Seneca

  6. #6
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    Great post.
    And also want to know what kind of toxic substances can come out from vaping (except nicotine).
    And I guess it can also depend on what kind of samples they tested. They could have tested some pre-filled cartridges or those cigarette-like disposable ones. I wanna see a test result from really good quality DIY juice in some APVs.
    drwag likes this.

  7. #7
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    All you ever wanted to know about e-cigs but were too afraid to ask....

    American Council on Science and Health (ACSH)

    Home
    drwag likes this.

  8. #8
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    Quote Originally Posted by jroly View Post
    What kind of toxic substances could you get????? I mean the juice is just VG/PG, some flavouring & nicotine. Maybe some stuff might come out of the coils but that is about it.
    Going by the studies, aldehydes are formed along with some other carcinogenic compounds. However, the studies recognise that the amounts of those chemicals are quite low. Also more of those compounds are formed when vaped at higher voltage/heats, on lower settings there were not formed. I think it's reasonable to conclude vaping isn't 100% harmless but it hasn't proven to be dangerous.
    drwag likes this.

  9. #9
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    Hi guys,

    Thanks for the replies and the likes! By the way, really want to ensure that I'm not giving the impression that I'm any kind of authority (I'm definitely not!). Just I think it's useful to hit those basic research articles, and I think really positive and reassuring that the scientific community is supporting the vaping community's balanced, measured assessment of the risks. We want to quote this research anytime we see ill-informed scare-mongering on the net (of which there's heaps) I guess.

    Take care all!

    P.S. My brother's arriving tomorrow, a long term addict of nicotine gum (like I was). He's excited about trying out vaping.

    P.P.S. My nicotine arrived from the states with the bottle broken in half! Managed to salvage most (600ml/1ltr) of it cause of the layers of plastic wrap, but man was that a drag! Have taken photos. I wonder if FedEx will play nice and give me some kind of refund....
    __________________________________________________ __________
    Lady Bracknell: Do you vape?
    Jack: Well, Lady Bracknell, I am bound to say, yes, I do vape.
    Lady Bracknell: That is well. A man should always have an occupation.

    The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde

  10. #10
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    That sounds like a good assessment (based on my own limited knowledge). Remember, you're never going to find a study that says 'hey, we're 100% certain there's no risk'. Of course, the science (or the statistics) doesn't work like that - everything tends to carry some risk. Those abstracts will contain cautious statements and cautious conclusions.

    What I find particularly reassuring is that the community is 'attuned' to significant risks that come up, and reacts quickly (like avoiding certain flavoring additives). It's a great example of continuous 'bottom-up' instead of 'top-down' management of risks. And the commercial companies involved (e.g. the flavouring companies) seem to act in much better faith than the bloody cigarette companies!
    __________________________________________________ __________
    Lady Bracknell: Do you vape?
    Jack: Well, Lady Bracknell, I am bound to say, yes, I do vape.
    Lady Bracknell: That is well. A man should always have an occupation.

    The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde

 

 
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