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  1. #1
    Sik
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    Quit.org.au Info sheet on smokeless tobacco

    http://www.quit.org.au/downloads/Bac...et%20lores.pdf

    also adding PDF attachment for posterity (in case they take it down)

    edit: the quit site links are back and my tin foil hat has been replaced: http://www.quit.org.au/resource-cent...s-tobacco.aspx

    QUIT.org have yet to respond to my request for information / a contact regarding tobacco harm minimisation (05/05/11)

    I noted in my correspondence with the heart foundation they were relatively useless.. My opinion has not changed much to date.

    edit: i will attach the file once forum admins lets me upload a 2 page PDF file
    Attached Files Attached Files
    Last edited by Sik; 11-05-11 at 03:07 PM.
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  2. #2
    Sik
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    "This is Google's cache of http://www.quit.org.au/resource-cent...s-tobacco.aspx. It is a snapshot of the page as it appeared on 15 Apr 2011 05:23:28 GMT. The current page could have changed in the meantime"

    Smokeless tobacco products are sucked, chewed or inhaled by the user, and not burned. Nicotine from prepared tobacco leaf may be absorbed through the lining of the mouth, or much less commonly, through the lining of the nose.1 The two main types of smokeless tobacco are snuff and chewing tobacco.2

    Snuff is a cured, ground tobacco, which may be ‘dipped,’ that is, held in place in the mouth and sucked, or in its dry form, inhaled. Moist snuff is sold loose, or in ready-to-use, teabag-like pouches designed for sucking.1 Moist snuff is used in North America and Northern Europe (e.g. Swedish snus).3 In some countries tobacco pastes or powders are applied to the gums and teeth.1 In Sudan, toombak is made from a fermented ground powdered tobacco mixed with sodium carbonate.2

    Chewing tobacco is available in several varieties, including loose leaf, plug tobacco and twist chewing tobacco. In India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and other South Asian countries, tobacco is commonly chewed in combination with other substances, such as betel leaf (‘paan’), areca nut and lime.1

    Smokeless tobacco products tend to cost less than cigarettes, and are often flavoured and sweetened to improve their taste, which adds to their appeal to the youth market.1 They are used throughout the world, but their availability is restricted in some countries, including Australia.3 A list of the different types of smokeless tobacco from different regions is available in the International Agency for Research on Cancer monograph on smokeless tobacco.3 In Australia, smokeless tobacco tends to be used by immigrants from countries where its use is common. Some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities chew native nicotinecontaining plants or commercial tobacco.1

    Health effects of smokeless tobacco
    The health risks of smokeless tobacco use are much lower than those from smoked tobacco.2,4 However, current evidence does not indicate that any smokeless tobacco is safe to use.4,5

    The type and size of disease risks from using smokeless tobacco vary across the different products, depending on their ingredients and how they were made. Many products have not been studied for ingredients and health effects.1,2,5

    Chewing tobacco and snuff contain at least 28 cancer-causing substances.3 Smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the mouth.2,3,5 The highest risks for mouth cancer are from the tobacco-betel, tobacco-lime and other tobacco mixtures used in India, Pakistan and South Asia, and toombak from the Sudan.3,6 More than half of mouth cancers in India and Sudan are due to smokeless tobacco use.7 Smokeless tobacco use can lead to oral disease, including lesions in the mouth, tooth decay, and receding gums.3,5,8

    Smokeless tobacco use causes cancer of the pancreas and oesophagus (food pipe).3,4,9 Use of smokeless tobacco during pregnancy may increase the risk for premature birth, preeclampsia and low birth weight.2,3,5 Smokeless tobacco use by men may reduce semen volume and sperm count, and increase the number of abnormal sperm.3

    Smokeless tobacco use causes short-term increases in blood pressure and heart rate.3 Evidence suggests that smokeless tobacco users probably have a small increase in the risk of dying from heart disease and stroke, but more research is needed.3,10

    A Scandinavian smokeless tobacco product known as ‘snus’ appears to be less toxic than other smokeless tobacco products, probably due to differences in the way it is manufactured and stored. Snus has lower levels of substances that cause cancer, compared to other smokeless tobacco products.11 Snus is far less harmful than smoking and also less harmful than other types of smokeless tobacco, particularly those used in India and Sudan.4,11,12 However, while snus use has not been shown to increase the risk for mouth cancer, it shares some of the other risks associated with smokeless tobacco use such as cancer of the pancreas and oesophagus, a small increased risk of death from heart attack and stroke, and problems during pregnancy.1,7,10,11

    Addiction and quitting
    Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine and its use can lead to nicotine addiction.3 Some smokeless products deliver higher doses of nicotine than cigarettes.1 For example, research from the United States shows that moist snuff users absorb around three to four times the amount of nicotine from one “dip” of snuff compared to one cigarette.3 Some products from the United Kingdom, Africa and India deliver very high levels of nicotine.3,13

    Absorption of nicotine from smokeless tobacco products is slower than that from cigarettes, but users have similar levels of nicotine in their blood.3,4 Smokeless tobacco users show signs of nicotine addiction. They develop a compulsive pattern of use, and when they quit they experience cravings and other symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.3,4 Symptoms of withdrawal include difficulty concentrating, urges to use smokeless tobacco, and feeling irritable, restless and hungry. However, unlike quitting cigarette smokers, few people report having depressed or negative moods. Most smokeless tobacco users have difficulty staying stopped.4
    There are few studies on what helps smokeless tobacco users quit. Use of nicotine patches or gum, and bupropion have not been shown to help people stop using smokeless tobacco. Dentists and hygienists may help their patients stop, especially if they show the damage that smokeless tobacco causes in their mouths. Telephone counseling may also help people stop using smokeless tobacco.2

    The Quitline 13 7848 (13 QUIT) is a confidential telephone information and advice service. For the cost of a local call, professional telephone advisors provide encouragement and support to help tobacco users, including smokeless tobacco users, to quit. Callers can ask to have their call returned in a range of languages other than English. An advisor will speak to you through an interpreter.2

    Australian law on smokeless tobacco
    During the 1980s moist snuff was marketed for a brief period in Australia in ready-to-use, teabag-like suckable pouches, of the kind popular in the USA. Smokeless tobacco was then banned in several states during the late 1980s, and federal legislation banned the manufacture, importation and commercial supply of the products in 1991.1 However, an amendment to the law now allows up to 1.5kg of smokeless tobacco products to be imported for personal use, and amounts larger than 1.5kg may be imported for personal use if permission is granted by the Minister.14 Smokeless tobacco cannot be sold by retailers in Australia.1

    Conclusion
    Chewing tobacco and snuff contain at least 28 cancer-causing substances, and cause cancer of the mouth, pancreas and oesophagus. It is also linked to other health problems.
    Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine and its use can lead to addiction.
    The health risks of smokeless tobacco are much lower than those for smoked tobacco. However smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.
    Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine and its use can lead to addiction.
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  3. #3
    Sik
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    References:


    References
    Winstanley M. Chapter 3. The health effects of active smoking. In: Scollo MM, Winstanley MH, eds. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and Issues. 3rd ed. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2008. http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au...health-effects. Accessed January 22, 2009.li>
    Ebbert JO, Montori V, Vickers KS, Erwin PC, Dale LC, Stead LF. Interventions for smokeless tobacco use cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; (4):CD004306.
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; c2007. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Vol. 89.
    SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly-Identified Health Risks). Scientific opinion on the health effects of smokeless tobacco products. Available at: http://ec.europa. eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scenihr/docs/scenihr_o_013.pdf. Accessed 27 April, 2010.
    Scientific Advisory Committee on Tobacco Products Regulation. Recommendation on Smokeless Tobacco Products. Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/sactob/ recommendations/en/smokeless_en.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2010.
    Critchley JA, Unal B. Health effects associated with smokeless tobacco: a systematic review. Thorax. 2003;58(5):435-443.
    Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(7):667-675.
    Carr AB, Ebbert JO. Interventions for tobacco cessation in the dental setting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; (1):CD005084. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005084.pub2.
    Secretan B, Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, et al. A review of human carcinogens--Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salted fish. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10(11):1033-1034.
    Boffetta P, Straif K. Use of smokeless tobacco and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b3060. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3060.
    Foulds J, Ramstrom L, Burke M, Fagerstrom K. Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden. Tob Control. 2003;12(4):349-359.
    Chapman S. Repealing Australia’s ban on smokeless tobacco? Hasten slowly. Med J Aust. 2008;188(1):47-49.
    Djordjevic MV, Doran KA. Nicotine content and delivery across tobacco products. In: Henningfield JE, London ED, Pn S, editors. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Berlin: Springer c2009: 61-82.
    Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. Ban—Smokeless tobacco products. Available at: http://www.productsafety.gov.au/cont...d/974275#h3_34. Accessed 01 June, 2010.
    Current Vape: Variable Wattage mod, EPM Boge tanks, Something Fruity

  4. #4
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    I'm just gob smacked. Basically: it's much healthier to use snus than to keep smoking, but it's not quitting so you can't have it.

    Later followed by: OK you can import it for personal use but we will tax you $450 for than 1.5Kg cause it's a tobacco product.

    I'll meet you half way. Let local tobacco companies make nicotine juice and you can tax it 100% as a tobacco product. Given when I look at ordering bigger bottles of nic from OS the postage is often the same as the cost, this in reality won't make it any more expensive for Aussies, and the gov'ment gets a nice chunk of change. Big Tobacco gets a new product and everybody wins.

    Right?

 

 

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